https://lisdigest.org
Abstract
Electronic information resources are invaluable assets in higher education, yet awareness of
these resources among students and academics in many Nigerian universities seems to be low.
The paper sought to find out the various tools which Festus Aghagbo Nwako Digital Library
(FANDL) use to market E-resources and the limiting factors. The respondents were 60 library
users (students, lecturers and researchers) selected through simple random sampling. The
instruments used were questionnaire, oral interview and observation checklist. The study
revealed that the major tools used for marketing E-Resources in FANDL are social media,
seminars and workshops. The study recommended the formulation of a written policy for
marketing EIRs and provision of sufficient funds.
Keywords: E-Resources, Marketing Tools, Academic Libraries, Festus Aghagbo Nwako Library.
Volume 14 | Article 1 May, 2021|
1
Library and Information Science Digest
Volume 14: Issue 1, May 2021
OPEN ACCESS
Marketing E-Resources in Festus Aghagbo Nwako Digital Library
(FANDL) for Improved Access for Implementation of Project 200
Obioma Loveth Obiekwe, Victoria Obianuju Ezejiofor and Ugochi Iruoma Egwuonwu
Nnamdi Azikiwe University Library, Awka.
Received: 2020/04/03. Accepted: 2020/12/05. Published: 2021/05/27
ISSN (Online): 2672 - 4820
Introduction
The application of information and
communication technology (ICT) in
academic libraries resulted in the
introduction of electronic information
resources (EIRs) and services. With ICT,
especially the Internet, academic libraries
have become only one of the key players in
the information supply chain. Gupta as
cited in Okon and Umoh (2014) observed
that in the present scenario “the notion of
service has changed from basic to value-
added, from staff assisted to self-service,
from in-house to outreach, from free to
priced, from reactive to proactive, and from
mass customization to individualized
service". Today, it is possible for users to
access electronic information resources
from remote locations, making physical
presence optional.
Users' preference of E-Resources has
drastically increased in academic libraries
because the resources facilitate access to
information, enhance fast searching, and
save the time of users. In this digital age,
library collections have continued to move
from print to electronic formats, therefore
the challenges of effective marketing of e-
resources has become apparent (Kumar,
2014). Marketing increases library users'
awareness, thereby motivating them to
utilize library products, which justifies the
huge amount of money invested by the
institutions in the acquisition of ERs.
Marketing plays an important role in
promoting accessibility and utilization of
library holdings. This invariably leads to
increased research productivity which is an
important criterion for the world ranking of
universities. A world-class university must
have a library which provides relevant and
current information resources in the right
format at the right time; and also promotes
optimal utilization of the resources.
“Project 200” is a project in Nnamdi
Azikiwe University (NAU) which targets
the university to be listed among the 200
best universities in the world from its
present position of 4029. It is the vision of
the new Vice Chancellor - Prof. C.
Esimone. For this to be realized, the Digital
Library in Festus Aghagbo Nwako Library
must contribute significantly by promoting
awareness of the availability and
accessibility of E-resources and ensuring
effective utilization of the resources by
academics and scholars. This would impact
positively on their research productivity,
thus promoting the visibility of the
university and increasing the possibility of
realizing the vision of project 200.
Festus Aghagbo Nwako Digital Library
(FANDL)
FANDL is the digital library of Festus
Aghagbo Nwako Library in Nnamdi
Azikiwe University, Awka. The university
was established in 1991 with the main
library known as Festus Aghagbo Nwako
Library. It also has other branch libraries
including a Law library at Awka, a Medical
Library at Nnewi, and a Pharmaceutical
Library at Agulu. The main library occupies
a gigantic building with a usable floor area
of 40,000 sq. meters with a sitting capacity
of 3,000 users and materials capacity of
over 500,000 volumes of books and a
computer capacity of o ver 1000
systems/workstations. Ogbonna (2016)
noted that the digital library took off in 2010
and is equipped with 480 desktops and 120
laptops through which it provides
enormous E-resources. These are CD-
ROMs co n s i sting of thes e s a nd
dissertations which reflect various
disciplines in the university. The online
databases include Online Access to
Research in the Environment (OARE),
Access to Global Research in Agriculture
(AGORA), Health Internet Network
Access to Research Initiative (HINARI),
Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ)
and World Digital Library, Nigerian
University Virtual Library, Directory of
Open Access Books and E-Library USA.
Others include PROTA, EBSCOHOST,
JSTOR and a host of offline databases such
as MIT Open Courseware and e-Granary.
The library website is library.unizik.edu.ng.
Concept of Electronic Information
Resources (EIRs)
An electronic information resource can be
defined as a material, data or programs
encoded for manipulation and accessed by a
computerized device. It may require the use
of a peripheral directly connected to a
computerized device (CD-ROM drive) or a
connection to a computer network (AACR2
as cited in Kenchakkanavar, 2014). Some
EIRs may not require the use of a computer.
From the above definition, it is understood
that an electronic resource is normally
encoded, that is, when ordinary language is
changed into letters or symbols for the
material to be stored electronically, and the
resource can be accessed through the
Obioma Loveth Obiekwe, Victoria Obianuju Ezejiofor and Ugochi Iruoma Egwuonwu
Marketing E-Resources in Festus Aghagbo Nwako Digital Library (FANDL) for Improved Access for
Implementation of Project 200
Volume 14 | Article 1 | May, 2021
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Internet or direct access. Popular EIRs
include E-books, E-journals, E-Theses and
Disser t a t ions, E-News p a p ers, E -
d i c t i o n a r i e s , E - d i r e c t o r i e s , E -
encyc lopedias , E-b iographi e s, E -
audio/visual resources or other published
resources that are in soft-copies. Some EIRs
are born digital while others were formerly
in print but later digitized. While some are
online others are offline.
These web-based resources are often more
current than their print counterparts, they
are accessible to multiple users and can be
utilized simultaneously even from remote
locations. E-resources defy distance, time
and space as the resources can be accessed
from remote locations at any point in time.
EIRs are invaluable research tools which
have been widely accepted and utilized in
academics. These resources complement
print-based resources and can be searched,
browsed and interlinked with other
publications and databases, downloaded
and saved in different formats for future
use. According to Jotwani (2014), “E-
resources provide access to information
that might be restricted to the users because
of geographical location or finances”.
Through various search techniques, these
resources can be searched, browsed and
interlinked with other publications and
databases, downloaded and saved in
different formats for future use. In addition,
they are convenient to use as these can be
accessed from the digital or visual library,
offices or the comfort of homes. One of the
biggest advantages of E-resources is that
they facilitate the formation of consortia
where group(s) of libraries join together to
leverage their collective strength and to
acquire a large number of information
sources at a very low price. E- Resources
are also known as electronic information
resources.
Concept of Marketing of Library
Services
Singh (2009) defines marketing of library
services as “the process of planning,
pricing, promoting and distributing goods
and services to create exchange that will
satisfy the library and her clients or users.
From this definition, it can be deduced that
mere provision of library resources
especially E-Resources in the library is not
enough, rather, it should be made accessible
in the right form and format, at the right
time and useable to the satisfaction of the
users. Since users are the top priority, Bhatt
(2011) opined that service providers should
remember that users are the most important
people to be served in library and
information centres. This could be
enhanced through the marketing mix. Bhatt
(2011) further stated that marketing mix
includes products (such as books, book-
related and non-book materials); price (in
the form of credit, discount, cash); place
(including coverage, distribution channels,
location); and promotion (which is done
through advertising, personal relations and
public relations); identifying users' needs
and satisfying them in an effective and
efficient manner.
Statement of Problem
In this digital age, university libraries
provide various types of E-resources in
addition to print resources to facilitate
tea ch i ng an d r e se arc h. Re s ea rch
productivity is a major criterion for the
Volume 14 | Article 1 | May, 2021
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Obioma Loveth Obiekwe, Victoria Obianuju Ezejiofor and Ugochi Iruoma Egwuonwu
Marketing E-Resources in Festus Aghagbo Nwako Digital Library (FANDL) for Improved Access for
Implementation of Project 200
ranking of universities in the world.
Utilization of E-resources has been proved
to impact positively on research
productivity in academic institutions (Ani,
Ngulube & Onyancha, 2014). Yet,
awareness and use of the resources among
academics in many Nigerian universities
have remained low which grossly affect
effective research activities (Kyung, 2010).
With the present need to achieve Project
200 which targets Nnamdi Azikiwe
University to be listed among the first 200
universities in the world; FANDL has a
mandate to facilitate research and promote
academic excellence by providing relevant
information resources to the users in the
right form at the right time and also
ensuring that they make effective use of the
resources. FANDL cannot achieve this goal
without engaging in marketing activities to
create awareness of the availability of EIRs.
If the marketing of e-resources is not given
serious attention in FANDL; library users
would not be sufficiently aware of the
available EIRs and may not make optimal
use of the resources which would culminate
into low research output which would have
an adverse effect on the position of the
university in the world ranking. This paper,
therefore, investigates marketing of EIRs in
FANDL focusing on the following: tools
employed by librarians in marketing EIRs
and factors which hinder effective
marketing with a view to finding possible
solutions.
Purpose of the Study
1. To identify the types of E-resources
users access in FANDL.
2. To identify tools which FANDL
employ in marketing E resources.
3. To ascertain factors which hinder the
marketing of E-resources in FANDL.
Research Questions
1. What types of E-resources do users
access in FANDL?
2. What are the tools which FANDL
employ in marketing E-resources?
3. What factors hinder marketing of E-
resources in FANDL?
Review of Related Literature
Any medium containing information is an
information resource. Information
resources are obtainable in two formats:
print and non-print). E-Resources consists
of various non-print and non-paper based
resources which are used to store
information (Ibenne, 2010). EIRs are
mainly accessed through E-libraries.
Anyim (2018) observed that university E-
libraries have made research more
interesting and have attained the status of
intellectually organised information
resource centres and a world of knowledge
at researchers' fingertips. Adoption of
university E-library motivates researchers,
students, faculty members and the
university to engage in more research. The
rationale for the adoption of E-libraries in
universities in Nigeria is solely to provide
electronic and online resources for staff and
st ud en ts to p ro mo te ed u c a ti on al
development and provide educational
resources for effective teaching, learning
and research. An electronic library achieves
its objectives by creating opportunities for
users to access and retrieve appropriate
information that satisfies their information
needs. University e-library is responsible
Volume 14 | Article 1 | May, 2021
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Obioma Loveth Obiekwe, Victoria Obianuju Ezejiofor and Ugochi Iruoma Egwuonwu
Marketing E-Resources in Festus Aghagbo Nwako Digital Library (FANDL) for Improved Access for
Implementation of Project 200
for providing instant access to digitized
information, electronic information
resources and services with the aid of
c o m p u t e r o r t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n
technologies. Electronic library acquires,
pr oc e ss e s, s to r es , ev a lu at e s a n d
disseminates information via electronic
means to the audience in need of
information. It can serve as a medium for
achieving national and community
development through the provision of
relevant information necessary for decision
making and policy enhancement.
Electronic library is a multi-disciplinary
concept that shares various branches of
comp u ter scie n ce i nclu d ing data
management, information retrieval, library
s c i e n c e , d o c u m e n t m a n a g e m e n t ,
information systems, the web, image
processing, and artificial intelligence.
Multidisciplinary nature of electronic
library engenders flexibility in the
definition which makes it difficult to have a
singular definition of e-library. However,
the format, form and nature of digital
libraries give a clearer picture of what
digital library means.
Marketing E-Resources in Academic
Libraries
In the view of Kumar (2014), marketing of
information products and services is a
concept of sensitively serving and
satisfying the needs of all those who are
involved in education, scholarship,
research and development and so on. Singh
(2009) also defined it as “marketing library
services is the process of planning, pricing,
promoting and distributing goods and
services to create exchange that satisfy the
library and the customers”. From this
definition, it can as well be deduced that
mere provision of library resources in the
library is not enough rather making them
accessible and useable to the satisfaction of
users is paramount.
In the past, libraries advertised their print
resources through such traditional methods
as Current Awareness Services and
Selective Dissemination of Information. In
this era of E-resources, libraries need to
engage in more aggressive marketing
because some people find it difficult to
accept technology. Marketing library
resources benefits the library in many ways.
Wu (2012) stressed that marketing library
services is not all about telling the public
what collection and services are being
offered; it contributes to building a
relationship with library customers. Okon
and Umoh (2014) discussed other reasons
for marketing library products and these
include the following:
1. To enable libraries to compete for
funds with other organs in the
institutions.
2. Increases awareness and effective
usage of library products.
3. Helps libraries maintain relevance.
4. Gives libraries improved image as
perceptions about the library and its
staff change.
5. Helps libraries identify the resources
readers need.
Tools for Marketing Electronic
Information Resources
Electronic information resources is a
relatively new format of creation, storage
and dissemination of information. The
Volume 14 | Article 1 | May, 2021
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Obioma Loveth Obiekwe, Victoria Obianuju Ezejiofor and Ugochi Iruoma Egwuonwu
Marketing E-Resources in Festus Aghagbo Nwako Digital Library (FANDL) for Improved Access for
Implementation of Project 200
collection of e-resources is growing day-to-
day and libraries have to pay a heavy
amount of their budget for subscriptions
especially on E-journals, databases, E-
books among others. It is important to
ensure the maximum utilization of these
resources by library users. Library
marketing helps to build awareness and
increase utilization of e-resources among
the library users. Nwosu (2016) wrote on
issues in the marketing of library products
and services and described social media as
the free websites which are presently the
popular global interaction and marketing
platforms. The social media utilization is as
a result of the application of Lib 2.0 in
library services. Nwosu (2016) suggested
such marketing outlets as facebook, blog,
Twitter, WhatsApp, Skype, Linkedin,
Instagram, Snapchat, and Meetup. This
author also suggested that every library
should have a web site or at least a webpage
in the institution's website to maintain web
presence where the library Online Public
Access Catalogue can be showcased. Tyagi
(2011) points out that posters, E-mail lists,
leaflets and brochures can be used to inform
users about the available resources. Below
are major tools and their features necessary
for marketing EIRs.
Volume 14 | Article 1 | May, 2021
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Digital Media
Library Website, E -mail services,
Webpage alert, Library portal,
OPAC, Online survey, Webcasts
and Web
announcements, Online advertising,
Social Network site such as
Facebook, Twitter, Flicker,
YouTube, Blogs, Wikis, RSS, Web
2.0.
Features
Time-saving, Instantly
reachable to the patrons, easy
to cover large population,
cost-effective, less
stimulating,
require ICT skills, creative,
Simultaneous in nature.
Print media
Booklets, Brochures, Flyers,
Banner/Posters, Bookmarks,
Newspaper alert and Newsletter,
Use Statistics,
Library publications, Annual
calendar, Feedback form,
Postcard/Letters, survey
Time-consuming, limited
access for patrons, expensive,
more informative, no extra
skill required for use it,
Static, at a t
one user.
ime available for
Events
and
Activities
Workshops, Seminars, User -
Education and Orientation, Word of
mouth,
Classroom Instruction, face -to-face
events, Library tours, Training
session,
One- to- one Conversations.
Long time activates, more
expensive, more informative
for participants, Flexible for
Instructors, establish direct
with and tutors.
Obioma Loveth Obiekwe, Victoria Obianuju Ezejiofor and Ugochi Iruoma Egwuonwu
Marketing E-Resources in Festus Aghagbo Nwako Digital Library (FANDL) for Improved Access for
Implementation of Project 200
Tools Used for Marketing E-Resources in
Academic Libraries as outlined by
Kumar (2017)
The present age is rightly characterised as
the information age, where success in any
activity is based on the amount and
accuracy of information available.
Information is a key resource for progress
and national development; it should be
acquired and marketed using the
appropriate tools to get the patrons. In the
course of the literature review, it was
observed that many previous researches did
not focus on barriers. The present study
focused on barriers in a particular library-
FANDL.
Barriers to Marketing E-Resources in
Academic Libraries
A number of factors hinder marketing of
EIRs in academic libraries. One of them is
insufficient funding for marketing E-
Resources: the accessibility and usage of e-
resources can be influenced by the budget
for acquiring EIRs, facilities for using the
resources and marketing materials.
Inadequate number of computers to access
EIRs and for subscriptions paid to the
publisher for access (Martin, 2010). When
budget is limited, accessibility and usage of
e-resources and even its marketing may be
low. Alemna as cited in Adekunmisi (2013)
identified the relatively low level of
knowledge while Jestin and Parameswari as
cited in Adekunmisi (2013) identified a lack
o f a g r e e m e n t c o n c e r n i n g u s e r s '
requirements, wants and needs.
Adekunmisi (2013) also noted other
barriers as follows: the subsidized non-
market environment in which most
scientific and technical information is
utilized; the difficulty of estimating the
value contributed by library resources to the
efficiency of research and advancement of
scholarly pursuits; the general economic
unsophistication of those mostly schooled
in the humanities, the non-market oriented
library schools and the nonchalant attitudes
of librarians and other information
professionals towards marketing resources.
Librarians need the following skills for
marketing EIRs: perception of user needs
and ability to obtain feedback from users;
technical knowledge, such as the ability to
use the Internet and other databases;
knowledge of various marketing strategies
for promoting information skills.
Strategies for Marketing of E-Resources
in Academic Libraries
Academic libraries cannot achieve
effective marketing without strategizing.
Pessa (2019) suggested the following:
1. Use of Marketing Committee
2. Adoption of Library Marketing
Policies
3. Training of Library Users
4. Setting Financial Plan
5. Management Support.
Adekunmisi (2013) also suggested some
strategies and these include the following:
1. L i b r a r i e s s h o u l d o r g a n i z e
Campaigns: This will raise the
visibility and value of the library and
its resources.
2. Use of Volunteer Librarians:
Volunteer librarians can develop
Volume 14 | Article 1 | May, 2021
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Obioma Loveth Obiekwe, Victoria Obianuju Ezejiofor and Ugochi Iruoma Egwuonwu
Marketing E-Resources in Festus Aghagbo Nwako Digital Library (FANDL) for Improved Access for
Implementation of Project 200
guides, manuals and toolkits to train
librarians to learn and apply
marketing planning in their libraries.
They can organize workshops and act
as facilitators.
3. Library Associations can Contribute:
American Library Association set the
pace. NLA can contribute by training
librarians on skills for marketing
library resources.
4. L i b r a r i e s s h o u l d O r g a n i z e
Information Literacy Programs for
users.
Training of librarians on marketing skills
and training library users through
Information Literacy are part of marketing
strategies. Library professionals are
expected to grasp the marketing approach,
as it is an essential weapon in this
competitive age. This will help to promote
efficient delivery of informat ion
economically to all users; encourage co-
operative efforts in research, strengthen
communication and collaboration among
academic researchers which results in
gen er at ion an d d is se min at io n o f
knowledge. According to Patil and
Pradhan, as cited in Thu and Lixin (2018).
Librarians need to possess the following
skills for marketing: Perception of user
needs and ability to obtain feedback from
users; technical knowledge, such as the
ability to use the Internet and other E-
resources and databases; knowledge of
various marketing strategies for promoting
information skills.
For users to be able to access and effectively
use e-resources, they must also have
adequate skills for retrieving information
and to evaluate the outputs of the search
process. Mardis, Hoffman and Marshall
(2008) refer to these skills as the
competencies needed to access resources.
Th e se c o m p e t en c i es i n cl u d e t h e
information literacy skills, including skills
to formulate a search, to identify
appropriate information sources, to select
the right search tools, to employ suitable
search strategies and to evaluate the results.
According to Bendersky, Metzler and Croft
(2012), search formulation involves
coming up with appropriate queries useful
for finding the information needed by the
information seeker.
Research Methodology
The study adopted a descriptive survey and
the population of the study comprised of
students, lecturers and researchers who
registered with the digital library as at
201 9/2 02 0 ac ade mi c se ss i on . 6 0
respondents were selected through simple
ran d o m sampling technique. The
questionnaire titled Questionnaire on
Marketing E-resources in Academic
Libraries (QMEAL) was administered on
the library users. Out of 60, 52 were
returned, that is a return rate of (86.7%).
Data were analyzed using frequency and
percentages.
Interview was held with the E-Resources
Librarian of FANDL in order to elicit
information on marketing tools used by the
library and the barriers experienced. The
researchers used an observation checklist to
identify the tools employed in FANDL in
marketing EIRs.
Volume 14 | Article 1 | May, 2021
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Obioma Loveth Obiekwe, Victoria Obianuju Ezejiofor and Ugochi Iruoma Egwuonwu
Marketing E-Resources in Festus Aghagbo Nwako Digital Library (FANDL) for Improved Access for
Implementation of Project 200
Presentation of Results
Sixty (60) copies of the questionnaire were distributed to respondents but 52 were
successfully collected, that is, a return rate is 83.3%
Table 1: Types of E-Resources Accessed by the Users
Factors which Hinder Marketing of E-
resources in FANDL
The researchers requested the E-Resources
Librarians to identify the factors which
hinder marketing in FANDL. Based on this
request, the information professional made
the following revelations:
1. Nonchalant Attitudes of Librarians
towards Marketing Library New
Products:
Some librarians lack the required technical
skills and interpersonal skills while others
have not become conversant with
marketing tools. The librarians need
training and motivation in this regard.
2. Inadequate Facilities:
When the library adequate does not have
adequate facilities for the use of EIRs,
librarians are not confident advertising the
From table 1, the result showed that 32
(61.5%) respondents make use of other
online- resources (Online Dailies, E-games,
E-movies etc), while 2(3.8%) make use of
E-Journals.
Tools which FANDL employs in
Marketing E-resources
During the interview, the researchers
requested the E-Resources Librarian to
identify the tools through which FANDL
markets EIRs. The librarians revealed that
the major tools which the library use to
market EIRs are Social Media, Library
Publications, Library Websites, Library
Orientation, Workshops and Face-to-Face.
The social network sites identified are
Facebook, Twitter, Flicker, YouTube and
Blog.
Volume 14 | Article 1 | May, 2021
9
Options Frequency Percentage
Theses and dissertations in
soft copies
6 11.5
E-Journals 2 3.8
E-books 5 9.6
E-mail 7 13.6
Online resources 32 61.5
52 100
Obioma Loveth Obiekwe, Victoria Obianuju Ezejiofor and Ugochi Iruoma Egwuonwu
Marketing E-Resources in Festus Aghagbo Nwako Digital Library (FANDL) for Improved Access for
Implementation of Project 200
products because when users demand for
the resources, they cannot utilize them On factors which hinder marketing in
FANDL, the study revealed that librarians'
lukewarm attitudes, insufficient funding,
university library management, inadequate
facilities and lack of technical support and
lack of written policy on marketing
constitutes problems in marketing in
FANDL. These are in line with such
previous studies as Martin (2010); Alemna
as cited in Adekunmisi (2013).
Recommendations
Based on the findings of this study, the
researchers make the following recom-
mendations:
1. Librarians should be trained on e-
resources marketing skills.
2. Adequate facilities should be
provided to enable users utilize EIRs.
3. Adequate funding should be provided
for marketing activities.
4. Use of marketing committee should
be encouraged.
5. Library management leadership
should work harmoniously with
librarians.
6. Sufficient number of technical
experts should be readily available.
7. Information literacy programmes
should be organized for users
regularly.
8. There should be a written policy on
marketing library products.
9. Marketing of library EIRs should be
conducted regularly.
10. Marketing as a course should be
introduced into the curriculum of
Library Schools especially at the
undergraduate level.
Volume 14 | Article 1 | May, 2021
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Obioma Loveth Obiekwe, Victoria Obianuju Ezejiofor and Ugochi Iruoma Egwuonwu
Marketing E-Resources in Festus Aghagbo Nwako Digital Library (FANDL) for Improved Access for
Implementation of Project 200
11. Library portals, banners and posters
should also be explored.
Conclusion
This study has explored the types of E-
resources which users' access, tools for
marketing E-resources in FANDL and the
various factors which hinder marketing of
E-resources in FANDL. Social media is the
main tool for marketing E-resources in
FANDL. Librarians should learn to market
the resources through the word of mouth. A
closed mouth is a closed destiny. The
barriers discovered include lukewarm
attitudes of librarians, lack of funds and
inadequate facilities. Marketing EIRs have
become imperative in FANDL now than
ever before. If the recommendations made
are implemented, the situation will be
improved and there will be greater
awareness and more effective use of E-
Resources. This would impact positively on
academic achievement of students and
research productivity of academics thus
promoting the chances of the university
being listed among the first 200 universities
in the world, which is the goal of Project
200.
References
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marketing library services and
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Ani, O. E; Ngulube, P. & Onyancha, B.
(2014). Effect of accessibility and
utilization of electronic information
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staff in selected Nigerian universities.
Science Research 2(6): 166-171.
Anyim, W. O. (2018). E-Library Resources
& Services: Improvement and
Innovation of Access and Retrieval for
Effective Research Activities in
University E-libraries in Kogi State
Nigeria. University of Nebraska -
L i n c o l n D i g i t a l C o m m o n s @
University of Nebraska Lincoln.
Bendersky, M., Metzler, D. & Croft, W. B.
(2012). Effective query formulation
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Obioma Loveth Obiekwe, Victoria Obianuju Ezejiofor and Ugochi Iruoma Egwuonwu
Marketing E-Resources in Festus Aghagbo Nwako Digital Library (FANDL) for Improved Access for
Implementation of Project 200
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Obioma Loveth Obiekwe, Victoria Obianuju Ezejiofor and Ugochi Iruoma Egwuonwu
Marketing E-Resources in Festus Aghagbo Nwako Digital Library (FANDL) for Improved Access for
Implementation of Project 200